Among today’s challenges to these models, many of them brought by or associated with digital technologies, we might identify four tendencies:
1) The first is the unbundling of education. As Clayton Christensen and others have argued, this entails a shift from the fixed timing and courses of study to more competency-based approaches.
2) Second is personalization. Technology and other resources now allow learning to be optimized (self-organized and dynamic) to cater to the distinctive learning, styles, pace, and interests and experiences of individuals.
3) Third is the emergent reality of continuous education. Transcending time, place, and the traditional ‘bundles’ of requirements needed to earn degrees or other credentials, future learning should enable ongoing career re-casting and more meaningful personal development.
4) Fourth is a creativity orientation. While in part a reaction to the rationalizing imperatives of science and engineering, the emphasis on creativity and innovation in schools and industry alike represents an abiding commitment to integrate arts and humanity-minded learning with more technical and critical thinking skills.